Mengenal Fiber Optic

Pada artikel sebelumnya kita telah membahas mengenai bagian – bagian Passive Optical Network (PON). Nah, pada artikel kali ini kita akan membahas mengenai pa lagi selain fiber optik. Sebenarnya fiber optik merupakan komponen utama dari Passive Optical Network. Namanya saja Passive Optical Network (PON), kalo nggak make fiber, kalo bukan PON pasti namanya bukan PON.
Oke, sebenarnya fiber Optik dibuat kira-kira lebih dari 20 tahun yang lalu[1]. Dengan ditemukanya kabel serat optik (Fiber Optic) telah memngambil alih dan mengubah wajah teknologi industri telepon jarak jauh maupun industri automasi dengan pengontrolan jarak jauh. Serat optik juga memberikan peranan besar membuat Internet dapat digunakan di seluruh dunia.
Ketika serat optik menggantikan tembaga (copper) sebagai long distance calls maupun internet traffic yang secara tidak langsung berdampak pada penurunan biaya produksi.

s1

Sebuah kabel fiber optik terbuat dari serat kaca murni, sehingga meskipun kabel mempunyai panjang sampai beratus2 meter, cahaya masih dapat dipancarkan dari ujung ke ujung lainnya. Helai serat kaca tersebut didesain sangat halus,ketebalannya kira-kira sama dengan tebal rambut manusia. Helai serat kaca dilapisi oleh 2 lapisan plastik (2 layers plastic coating) dengan melapisi serat kaca dengan plastik, akan didapatkan equivalen sebuah cermin disekitar serat kaca.
Cermin ini menghasilkan total internal reflection (refleksi total pada bagian dalam serat kaca).
sama seperti jika kita berada pada ruangan gelap dengan sebuah jendela kaca, kemudian anda mengarahkan cahaya senter 90 derajat tegak lurus dengan kaca , maka cahaya senter akan tembus ke luar ruangan. Akan tetapi jika cahaya senter tersebut diarahkan (ke jendela berkaca) dengan sudut yang rendah (hampir paralel dengan cahaya aslinya), maka kaca tersebut akan berfungsi menjadi cermin yg akan memantulkan cahaya senter ke dalam ruangan. demikian pada serat optik, cahaya berjalan melalui serat kaca pada sudut yang rendah.

s2

Untuk mengirimkan percakapan telepon melalui serat optik, suara analog di rubah menjadi sinyal digital. Sebuah laser transmitter pada salah satu ujung kabel on/off untuk mengirimkan setiap bit sinyal. System fiber optik Modern dengan single laser bisa mentransmitkan jutaan bit/second. Atau bisa dikatakan laser transmitter on dan off jutaan kali /second.
System terbaru laser transmitter dapat mentransmitkan warna2 yang berbeda untuk mengirimkan beragam sinyal digital dalam fiber optik yang sama.

s3

Kabel fiber optik modern dapat membawa sinyal digital dengan jarak kurang lebih 60 mil (sekitar 100 Km). Pada jalur distribusi jarak jauh biasanya terdapat peralatan tambahan (equipment hut) setiap 40-60 mil,yang berfungsi pick-up equipment yang akan menampung, menguatkan sinyal, dan kemudian me- retransmit-kan sinyal ke equipment selanjutnya.

Menghitung Rugi-rugi Fiber dan Perkiraan Jarak
Ada beberapa cara untuk menyelesaikan masalah dalam menentukan kebutuhan energi suatu link fiber optik. Cara yang paling gampang dan akurat adalah dengan menelusuri jejak OTDR ( Optical Time Domain Reflectometer). Metoda ini akan memberitahukan nilai rugi-rugi sebenarnya dari semua bagian ( connector, sambungan dan rugi-rugi fiber) dari link. Selain dengan OTDR, ada dua alternatif yang bisa digunakan untuk memperkirakan kebutuhan energi suatu link :
1. Kalkulasikan total rugi-rugi link dari fiber jika panjang dan variabel rugi-rugi fiber diketahui.
2. Kalkulasi jarak maksimum fiber jika optical budget dan variabel rugi-rugi diketahui.
Variabel rugi-rugi : connector, splice (sambungan) dan attenuasi per kilometer dari fiber. Tabel berikut ini menunjukkan nilai rugi-rugi yang umumnya digunakan dalam perhitungan.

s4

IEEE juga merekomendasikan jarak maksimum kabel seperti yang tampak pada tabel di bawah ini.

s5

Perkiraan Rugi-rugi Total Link

Rugi-rugi = [panjang fiber (km) x attenuasi fiber per km] + [rugi-rugi sambungan x banyaknya sambungan] + [rugi-rugi konektor x banyaknya konektor] + [safety margin]

Perkiraan Jarak Fiber

Panjang fiber

=([optical budget]- [rugi-rugi link])/[ rugi-rugi fiber per km]

= {█( [ ( min.TX power)- (sensitivitas RX) ]- (rugi-rugi sambungan ×banyaknya sambungan)- @(rugi-rugi konektor ×banyaknya konektor)- (safety margin))}/(rugi-rugi fiber per km)

Jarak maksimum ini akan sangat bergantung pada hal-hal berikut :
Attenuasi fiber optik per km
Desain dan usia dari fiber optik
Kualitas konektor dan rugi-rugi per pasang
Kualitas sambungan (splice) dan rugi-rugi per sambungan
Kuantitas dari sambungan dan konektor

Sumber: 1. Wikipedia.com
2. Elektroindonesia.com

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